Fei´s review on large area coating of perovskite solar cells and modules gets online in Energy & Environmental Science

Symbolic picture for the article. The link opens the image in a large view.

10 years of research in perovskites semiconductors have provided great insight into the crystallization dynamics of halide based perovskites. Different to their oxide or chalcogenide sisters and brothers, halide perovskites offer a high crystallization enthalpy at very moderate temperatures, requiring utmost precision in timing and in controlling process conditions. In particular, the large efficiency losses associated with upscaling the lab-scale devices to large-area modules are directly correlated with an insufficient understanding but also control of the crystallization process. In this review, the recent advances in understanding crystallization of perovskites when deposited by large-scale deposition methods are critically discussed. One important is the identification of intermediate phases, which, independent of the coating method, to decouple the otherwise overlapping drying process from the crystallization process. Strategies for enhancing the crystal morphology of perovskite films are presented as well, which is vitally important to realize reproducible manufacturing of large-area modules.